This is the practice of disturbing soil in order to terminate weeds or a cover crop, bury crop residue, or work up compaction.  Some tools overturn the soil profile completely (moldboard ploughing), while others aim to cut up residue with minimal soil disturbance (vertical tillage). Some tillage tools only disturb the strips in which the seeds will be planted (see strip-till). Though there are many perceived benefits to tillage, it is one of the greatest contributors to soil erosion and especially if done in the fall.  Many farmers also believe that it damages the beneficial soil micro-organisms, and releases soil carbon into the atmosphere. (See no-till)


cultivating prior to planting

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